# A New Ready-To-Bake Seafood Meal Based on Pacific White Shrimp: Product Development, Cost Evaluation, Consumer Acceptability, and Shelf Life Stability

Sinthya Meire Lopes de Araújo, Alex Augusto Gonçalves*
Laboratory of Seafood Technology and Quality Control (LAPESC), Agricultural Sciences Center (CCA), Animal Sciences Department (DCA), Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid (UFERSA), Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil

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© 2019 Lopes de Araújo and Gonçalves.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Laboratory of Seafood Technology and Quality Control (LAPESC), Agricultural Sciences Center (CCA), Animal Sciences Department (DCA), Federal University of Semi-Arid (UFERSA), Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil; Tel: + 558433178300r1419; Fax: + 558433178361; Mobile: + 55 84 991713135; E-mail: alaugo@gmail.com

## Abstract

### Background:

Considering that consumers are increasingly demanding and attentive to a healthy diet, while also looking for food that is easy to prepare, the objective of this work was to develop a new value-added product with Pacific white shrimp.

### Methods:

Fresh shrimps were headless, eviscerated, cut, washed, immersed in brine (10% NaCl + 5% sodium tripolyphosphate – STPP, 30 min), drained, weighed, immersed in sweet-sour sauce (15 min), drained, stuffed with cream cheese, weighed, vacuum packed, frozen (-30°C / 24h), and stored (-18ºC). Microbiological, centesimal composition and physico-chemical analyzes were performed for fresh and stuffed shrimp. Confirmed the microbiological safety, samples were baked (180ºC, 20 min) and sensorially evaluated. The shelf life study for the frozen stuffed shrimp was carried out during 180 days of storage (-18ºC) and at each 45 days, samples were withdrawn for microbiological and physico-chemical analyzes.

### Results:

All parameters analyzed were within the limits of Brazilian legislation, which demonstrated the initial shrimp freshness, and hygienic health care. The overall acceptance test was 8.72, the acceptability index of 96% and purchase intention of 82%. The final cost per piece was lower and viable. The nutritional value was in accordance to the literature for this shrimp, and the physico-chemical results during the shelf life evaluation were stable.

### Conclusion:

The vacuum packaging, and freezing storage, associated with hygienic-sanitary care promoted the stability of microbiological assessment, and physical-chemical properties, and the overall quality and safety product for the consumer, which can be a new alternative for the shrimp industry.

Keywords: New product, Value-added, Litopenaeus vannamei, Quality, Shelf life, Shrimp, Frozen food.

## 1. INTRODUCTION

The seafood is an important source of food for mankind, especially as a source of high biological value proteins; so, it is not difficult to understand in the last decades, the increase in world seafood consumption, period marked by the awareness of human needs, the cult of well-being, health, and food safety [1, 2]. Among the seafood species, crustaceans are the most valued products in the international food market (both in value and production) and much appreciated in several countries [3], especially the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) which has grown in global demand, accounting for 80% of world shrimp production [4]. Due to its commercial production in many countries, and its industrialization in full growth, today, the shrimp consumers can have access to various forms of presentation, e.g. fresh, frozen, breaded, salted, smoked and canned. In addition, there are few choices of ready-to-cook products, in small portions and very varied preparations, available throughout the year, which facilitate the consumer’s life under the aspect of practicality and availability [5].

Nowadays consumers are increasingly demanding and attentive to a healthy diet, at the same time as looking for food that is easy to prepare and convenient [5, 6]. The shrimp is appreciated by the unique flavor and texture and can be served as appetizers or snacks. More importantly, in terms of human health, the high cholesterol content in shrimp is compensated by the low total lipids content and the predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids [7]. In addition, the final presentation, in a more elaborate way [8], associated to the use of some natural spices, adding value to the product, can improve the final quality and make it more appreciated by consumers [9]. So, alternative forms of seafood processing, in addition to the usual ones (i.e. fresh, frozen, breaded or canned) such as new formulations, preprepared foods, and practical products should be offered.

Value aggregation in shrimp does not require the acquisition of large equipment and investments, as it can be represented by diversification in the presentation of products from local raw materials, such as coconut, cassava flour, and corn flour, low-cost products [10]. It is fundamental that the food professional glimpse a wonderful opportunity to develop researches for new products, suggesting innovative and profitable products, recognizing that the planning and the sustainability of shrimp are challenges that cannot be overlooked [10, 11]. Thus, the present study proposes to develop a new valued added product (stuffed and ready to bake) with the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using low cost ingredients and simple technology.

## 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

### 2.1. Raw Material

The Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) were supplied by the shrimp farm Aquadelta Agroindustrial S.A. (Mossoró, RN, Brazil), slaughtered by thermal shock in water and ice (1: 1), immediately treated with 3% sodium metabisulphite, transported in isothermal boxes to the Laboratory of Seafood Technology and Quality Control (LAPESC / UFERSA) where they were immediately washed, weighed, counted (number of pieces per kilogram), and kept under refrigeration (4°C) until the beginning of product development (time between slaughter and processing <2h).

### 2.2. Product Development

The whole fresh shrimps (Fig. 1) were headless (leaving all shell from the first segment to the telson), washed (5 ppm chlorinated water), weighed, gutted, cut in the dorsal region (butterfly cut), and immersed in brine (10% NaCl + 5% sodium tripolyphosphate STPP) for 30 min, drained, immersed in the sweet-sour sauce (garlic, finger pepper, ginger, sugar, salt, rice vinegar and starch) for 15 min (for flavor absorption), drained, filled (manually) with cream cheese (Philadelphia Cream Cheese, Kraft Foods Brazil), weighed (yield calculation), vacuum packed, identified, frozen in ultrafreezer (-30ºC) and stored under freezer (-18ºC). The cost analysis of the formulation of the developed product was made based on the current market value of each ingredient used (shrimp, sweet-sour sauce and cream cheese).

### 2.3. Yield Calculation

For each step during the product development, samples were weighed, to calculate the partial and overall yield of the final product. The methodology adopted was described by Gonçalves [12] according to the following Equations 1 and 2:

 (1)

 (2)

where: Pi = Initial weight (g); Pf = Final weight (g)

 Fig. (1). Steps for the stuffed shrimp development.

### 2.4. Centesimal Composition and Physicochemical Evaluation

The centesimal composition (fresh shrimp and stuffed shrimp) was carried out through the analysis of moisture (Method 950.46), crude protein (Method 940.25), total lipids (Method 948.15), and ash (Method 938.08), according to AOAC's official methodology [13]. The pH, nitrogen of total volatile bases (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) determination were performed according to the methodology recommended by Laboratório Nacional de Referência Animal (LANARA) [14]. All analyzes were done in triplicate.

### 2.5. Microbiological Analyzes

The microbiological analyzes were carried out in accordance with Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, Brazil) - Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 12/2001 [15] using the Brazilian official methodology (Instrução Normativa No. 62, de 26/08/2003) [16] The microorganisms analyzed for raw fresh shrimp were: total counts of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, Salmonella sp., and coagulase-positive staphylococci; and for stuffed shrimp: total count of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, Salmonella sp., coagulase positive staphylococci, and thermotolerant coliforms. All analyzes were performed at the Clinical and Immunological Analysis Center (CACIM, Mossoró, RN, Brazil).

### 2.6. Sensory Analysis

Confirmed the microbiological safety, samples baked in a preheated gas oven (180ºC) for 20 min and submitted to the sensory panel evaluation. The sensory analysis was performed with 50 untrained panelists (32% men and 68% women, ranging in age from 18 to 48 years) who received still warm stuffed shrimp samples along with the evaluation form (structured hedonic scale of 9 points ranging from “extremely dislike” to “I liked very much”), which consisted in the subjective manifestation of the product tasted, demonstrating whether such a product pleases or displeases, whether it is accepted or not [17, 18]. The acceptability index (IA) was calculated considering that 100% is the maximum score achieved by the product (stuffed shrimp) and the decision criterion for the IA to be well accepted is at least 70% [19, 20]. The consumer's buy intention was also evaluated using the Attitude Scale Test structured in five points that range from “I would certainly buy” to “I certainly would not buy” [17, 20].

### 2.7. Product Stability During Frozen Storage

The shelf life study of stuffed, frozen, vacuum-packed shrimp stored for 180 days at -18°C was monitored every 45 days by microbiological (total count of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp., and coagulase positive staphylococci) and physico-chemical (pH, TVBN, TMA) analyzes.

### 2.8. Statistical Analysis

The means were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the effects were considered significant (by the Tukey test) when p ≤ 0.05. All analyzes were performed by the XLSTAT Trial Version 2018.2 software (Addinsoft 1995-2018).

## 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

### 3.1. Product Yield and Formulation Cost

The shrimp weighs at each step and the respective yields are shown in Table 1. For each 1,000g of shrimp, 43 units of shrimp were counted, which represents a shrimp with ~ 23g (per unit). After the headless shrimp step, the whole fresh shrimp lost 37.5% by weight, which represents a possibility of using this residue (head) for a new by-product development. After the brining step, 4.8% increase in weight was observed due to the incorporation of water by the presence of NaCl and STPP (humectant food additive). The immersion in the sweet-sour sauce, promoted the increment of 17% in weight, representing besides the weight gain, the improvement of the sensorial quality (tasty) by the incorporation of ingredients which can increase consumer acceptance. The cream cheese addition promotes an increase in weight of 15.70%. The weight loss by the head removal step was not totally recovered by the increase in the final weight (resulting from filling with cream cheese), but to a certain extent, the losses (overall yield of 41.87% from headless shrimp) was minimized by the ingredients used. The same situation was also found during the developing a value-added product (e.g. butterfly breaded shrimp) with the same species [11].

The increase of 8.27% in the cost (comparing to the shrimp value) of the stuffed shrimp formulation (Table 2) was observed, and the final cost was R$32.27 (~US$ 7,70/kg raw fresh shrimp). However, when compared to ready-made dishes in restaurants and crustacean houses, this cost becomes lower than the average prices since dishes made with crustaceans reach the average value of R$40.00 (US$ 9.50) in local commerce. There are also no comparable products in the national market since most markets only sell shrimp in fresh/whole form or cooked or frozen.

Considering that this new product would be an ideal for sale per unit, and not per kilo, remembering the weight of shrimp of 23 g, the cost per piece would reach the value of R $0.75 (or US$ 0.18). The value added having the differential of being a “baked product” (less caloric than the breaded and fried ones) the stuffed shrimp becomes a viable and best option. When compared to fried, the grilled or baked shrimp is presented as the best nutritional option, because it contains fewer lipids, saturated fat, and can provide the desirable in polyunsaturated [21].

### 3.2. Nutritional and Physico-Chemical Analysis

The results of the centesimal composition (moisture, protein, lipid, and ash) and physico-chemical (pH, TVBN and TMA) analyzes of fresh and stuffed shrimp are presented in Table 3.

Table 1. Partial yield (each step) and overall yield for the stuffed shrimp.
STEPS Weight
(g)
Yield
(%)
Gain (+) | Loss (-)
(%)
Whole fresh shrimp 1,000 - -
Shrimp after brine step 655 104.80 +4.80
Shrimp after sweet-sour sauce step 766.33 117.00 +17.00
Stuffed shrimp with cream cheese 886.66 115.70 +15.70
Overall yield* - 141.87 +41.87
Table 2. Costs of the ingredients used for the stuffed shrimp development.
Ingredient Commercial quantity (g) Price Used
quantity (g)
R$(US$)
Fresh whole shrimp 1,000 24.00 1,000 24.00
Cream cheese 150 5.00 150 5.00
Saccharose (sugar) 1,000 1,60 200 0.32
Rice vinegar 750 mL 3,00 150mL 0.60
Maize starch 200 1,80 16 0.14
Peppers (10 units) - 1,50 - 1.50
Ginger 1,000 13,00 16 0.21
Garlic 43 0,50 43 0.50

Not applicable.

### HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals/humans were used for studies that are the basis of this research.

Not applicable.

### CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

Declared none.