Optimization of Head Space Pressure Using Liquid Nitrogen in Hot-packed BBQ Sauce
Praveen Yerramsetti1, Timothy Bowser2, *, Ranjith Ramanathan1
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2019
First Page: 74
Last Page: 78
Publisher Id: TOFSJ-11-74
Article History:Received Date: 19/03/2019
Revision Received Date: 05/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 07/05/2019
Electronic publication date: 24/07/2019
Collection year: 2019
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
BBQ sauce was hot-filled at 54°C (130°F) in plastic PET, 567 g (20 oz) bottles. The PET bottles paneled, due to the temperature and pressure of the hot-fill process. Liquid nitrogen was used as a processing aid to optimize the headspace pressure to prevent paneling.
The objective of the research was to eliminate paneling of the PET bottles due to hot-filling.
A micro dosing system was used to inject nitrogen into the container just after filling and immediately prior to capping. Headspace pressure was measured using a custom-designed pressure sensor. Nitrogen dosage time was plotted against headspace pressure. The relationship between nitrogen dosage time and headspace pressure was linear, with a coefficient of determination of 0.84, and slope of 1.36 kPa/ms, with an intercept of -12.21 kPa.
Results & Conclusion:
Results were analyzed using analysis of variance. Visual inspection of the bottles for defects resulted in the determination of the optimum headspace pressure of 30 kPa (4.4 psi).