RESEARCH ARTICLE


A Comparative Study on Cultivars of Capsicum: Critical Assessment based on Colour Values, Pungency and total Capsaicinoids Content



Smitha Sarojam1 , Nikhil Mohan1 , Sumi S. Paul1 , Baby K. Chacko1 , Neelesh K. Nema1 , *, Viju Jacob1
1 Nutraceuticals Division, C.V.J. Creative Centre-Bioingredients, Synthite Industries Pvt. Ltd., Synthite Valley, Kadayiruppu-682 311, Kerala, India


© 2020 Sarojam et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Nutraceuticals Division, C.V.J. Creative Centre-Bioingredients, Synthite Industries Pvt. Ltd., Synthite Valley, Kadayiruppu-682 311, Ernakulam, Kerala, India; Tel: +91-484 2834272(D); Mob: +91-735 6480222; Fax: +91-484 3051351; E-mails: neeleshk@synthite.com; n.neeleshnema@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction:

Chillies or red peppers are consumed globally as a spice, condiment, culinary and as folk medicine because of their pungent taste, spicy flavour and therapeutic values. Colour, pungency and capsaicinoids are the potential characteristic attributes for assessing the quality of the dried chilli and are accountable for market price, trade and standardisation of the oleoresins.

Objective:

The present study was designed to prepare crude oleoresins from nineteen varieties of chilli and to enrich carotenoids contents in oleoresin paprika and capsaicinoids extractives in oleoresin capsicum separately for the evaluation and standardisation of colour, pungency and total capsaicinoids content.

Methods:

Crude oleoresins from dried fruits of chilli were prepared using conventional solvent extraction method, which were further enriched for the carotenoid and capsaicinoids extractives by fractionation techniques, and yielded oleoresin paprika and oleoresin capsicum separately. Oleoresins and their derivatives were subjected to analytical estimation of colour values, pungency and capsaicinoids content. The colour content was quantified using a UV Vis Spectrophotometer, whereas pungency was determined using HPLC and quantified as Million Scoville Heat Units. Total capsaicinoids contents were also quantified.

Results:

The highest extraction yield was found in the variety Teja (S-17) that is 8.82%, whereas enriched versions of oleoresin paprika and oleoresin capsicum were calculated higher in the varieties 273 and Teja (S-17) with the values 6.04 and 2.62%, respectively. The colour value of crude extract was the highest (3085.2 CU) in the variety 5531-IPM, whereas paprika was enriched high in the variety Lolly Chilli (3400.5 CU). The highest pungency (1.59 MSHU) was noted in the variety 5531-HPH. In the case of oleoresin capsicum, the pungency was highly enriched in the two varieties 4884 and Teja (S-17), with the MSHU values 6.11 and 5.5, respectively. Total capsaicinoids contents in the crude oleoresin were found maximum in the variety 5531-HPH (10.60%), whereas after purification (oleoresin capsicum), the maximum capsaicinoids contents were enriched in the varieties 4884 and Teja (S-17) with the values 40.73 and 36.67%, respectively.

Conclusion:

The outcome of our elaborated studies elucidates that Teja (S-17) 5531-HPH, 5531-IPM and 4884 varieties are better for extractive yield, pungency, and total capsaicinoids content, whereas 5531-IPM and Lolly Chilli varieties are better for colour extraction compared to all other varieties.

Keywords: Red Chilli, Capsicum annuum, Oleoresin, Paprika, Pungency, Capsaicinoids.