Vancomycin-Resistant Lactococcus lactis 1A-1 Isolated from a Competitive Exclusion Product Transfers Vancomycin Resistance Genes to Staphylococcus aureus

R. Doug Wagner*, 1, Dedeh Kurniasih-Rubin2, Shemedia J. Johnson1
1 Microbiology Division, HFT-250, USFDA National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
2 Biology Department, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

© 2008 Wagner et al.;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, HFT-250, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72022, USA; Tel: (870) 543-7434; Fax: (870) 543-7307; E-mail:


A vancomycin-resistant Lactococcus lactis isolate 1A-1 from a competitive exclusion (CE) product contained plasmid-encoded vanA, B, C1, and C2/3 genes. The L. lactis 1A-1 conjugatively transferred the genes to Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. CE product bacteria may be reservoirs for dissemination of vanA, B, and C genes to the human gastrointestinal microbiota.