Optimization of Texture in Sorghum Ice Cream Cone Production Using Sensory Analysis

J. Kigozi*, 1, N. Banadda1, Y. Byaruhanga2, A. Kaaya2, L. Musoke2
1 Department of Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering, Makerere University, P.O. 7062 Kampala, Uganda
2 Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda

© 2014 Kigozi et al.;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering, Makerere University; P.O. 7062 Kampala, Uganda; Tel: ?????????????; Fax: ????????????????; E-mail:


As consumers we are all acutely aware of the texture when we eat or drink solids or liquids and there can no doubt that texture is an important determinant of food quality. Results from the development of the process for sorghum based cones suggested the importance of optimizing the appearance and texture in future studies in the cone development for better consumer acceptance. In this study sensory analysis was used to determine differences in the product texture due to changes in the formulation for fifteen different formulations for the sorghum cones; in view of optimizing the sorghum cone texture. The sensory panel was used to determine the texture rated according to hardness, crispness and overall acceptability. Panelists used a 6-point scale for sensory evaluation (6 = “extremely hard” to 1 = “soft”) to rate hardness and 6 = “extremely crispy” to 1= “Not crispy” to rate crispness and a 9-point hedonic scale (9 = “like extremely”; 1 = “dislike extremely”) to rate the overall acceptability. Cones formulations which ranked higher; 8.25 and 8.06 respectively than the control 7.5 in consumer acceptance where F14 (where the sorghum was decreased by 25 %) and F9 (where water was decreased by 14%). Formulation F14 which resulted in the best texture was thus be selected and adopted as the formulation for the sorghum ice cream cones.

Keywords: Ice cream cones, optimization, sorghum, texture.